The MLA Handbook highlights principles regarding the use of prescriptive methods. Essentially, writers must keep track of essential elements within any source, like the author’s name and title. And then sort them into an overall format. Using this approach, the writer can reference any source, regardless of whether it’s on the list.
This guide, however, will provide a list of issues regarding citing sources online in MLA format.
What is MLA?
MLA is the acronym for The Modern Language Association, an organization focused on languages and literature.
Based on the subject your course or research is based on, your instructor may request that you cite the sources you have used using MLA format. This is a particular method of citing, using the guidelines of the Modern Language Association. Other styles are also available, for instance, APA formatting and Chicago reference style. However, MLA format is typically utilized for literary, language, liberal arts, and other humanities-related subjects. The guide covers this in depth, but’s not linked with any particular group.
What is MLA Citing?
The Modern Language Association Handbook is the 9th edition of the Handbook and is a standardization of the method scholars use to document their sources and write their documents. When all scholars note their research and writing in the same manner, it’s easy to identify and comprehend the bases used in a particular project. Your readers will examine the citations you have provided, not just to understand them but to study them.
If you’re borrowing and using data from another source in your study or project, you must acknowledge the source author. This can be done through the creation of the MLA Citation. Depending on the type of data you’re incorporating in the work you’re creating, it’s possible to include citations within the text of your piece and in a list of works cited near the end of the work.
The guidebook provides instructions on how to make MLA Citations. This page provides the details found in the 9th edition.
Additionally, another section outlines how to make the MLA header. The headers are displayed on the uppermost page of your assignment. Please discuss with your teacher what format they would prefer. MLA style for headings.
What is MLA Format?
This is the 9th, most current, and most up-to-date version of MLA Citations. It was released in April 2021. The format for citations is slightly different from previous versions. The update is a follow-up to an update in 2016 to the 8th edition, which contained numerous significant modifications from the prior editions.
The 8th edition of the book’s most significant change and the most thrilling update was the adoption of one standard format for all sources kinds. In previous editions, students were required to determine an appropriate structure for citing the source they utilized. There were various formats available for websites, books, periodicals, etc.. In 2016, adopting a single all-encompassing MLA format for citations let scholars spend less time searching for the correct format for describing their sources and focusing on the research.
The other updates also included the list of “containers.” Containers give information about a piece that is contained in a larger amount. For example, books include tracks, chapters containing music, Journals, and journal entries. The source is the bigger project, like an online site, and the container can be a small portion of that source, like an article on the site.
MLA is now encouraging you to include DOIs or URLs in your citations. You can use a DOI instead of URLs if it’s readily accessible. By the MLA 9th edition, it is generally possible to eliminate HTTP https or http:// in URLs unless you wish to link to them. For DOIs, use http:// or https:// before the DOI: https://doi.org/xx.xxxx/xxx.xxxx.xxxx).
The pseudonyms and usernames of social media may substitute for the actual identity of the writer. Numbers for issues and volumes can now be abbreviated with “vol.” and “no.” The city of publication and the source’s medium (such as print or the web) do not appear in the citations. For publishers/presses that are academic, using the terms “university” as well as “press,” shorten “university” to “U” and “press” into “P” (Cambridge University Press). Use lowercase seasons within the date field of a reference (spring 2021 and not spring 2021).
Bibliography as opposed to. Works Cited: What’s the difference?
Two terms, “Bibliography” and “Works Cited,” are used interchangeably. However, they are two separate words with two different definitions.
A bibliography is a listing of resources that the author suggests for further study. The list of works cited is an index of resources mentioned in the writer’s work.
Do you want to suggest sites and books for your readers? Make yourself an MLA format bibliography. You can do this by making an entire list of bibliographies. Label the webpage as “Bibliography.”
Did you include any quotations or insert any quotes into your work? In-text citations should be created and placed within the text of your writing. Create an entire list of reference sources and add them to the conclusion of your project. The page should be labeled as “Works Cited.”
It’s good to know that the references used in MLA bibliography format and regular lists of works cited are formatted exactly the same way.
The creation of the Works Cited list with the 9th edition
MLA refers to a form of writing that could be used to describe a variety of forms of writing. Because texts are becoming increasingly digital and the same document is often found in multiple places, there must be a more relaxed set of guidelines.
The current procedure is based on a handful of guiding principles instead of a long listing of particular guidelines. The Handbook needs to provide specific guidelines on the proper way to reference sources; it’s organized by the procedure of documenting, not by the authorities themselves. It gives authors a pliable technique that is universally applicable.
Here’s a summary of the process:
In determining how to cite your source, you should begin by looking through the essential elements list. These are the most common elements that MLA advises to include in every Works Cited entry. The items must be arranged in this order:
- The title of the source.
- Container title,
- Others contributors
- Publication date,
Every element must follow the punctuation mark as shown below. Previous editions of this Handbook had the location of publication as well as different punctuation (such journals with editions of the journal with parentheses or colons following issue numbers) according to the kind of source. In the latest version, punctuation has been simplified (only using commas and spaces to separate components), and information regarding the source is limited and simple.
A webpage that has an individual author
In citing websites, the MLA generally requires you to abbreviate the names of the months by three letters. As an example, the month of January is Jan.
Author Last Name, First Name. “Title.” The title of the Website, Sponsor or Publisher (include only if not the same as website title or author), Day, Month, Year, URL.
Hamilton, Jon. “Think You’re Multitasking? Think Again.” National Public Radio, 2 October 2008, www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=95256794.
Page without any author or group of authors
If there is no writer available or if a group or organization wrote the website, you must begin by stating the URL’s title. If the page’s name is identical to the title of the publisher or sponsor, do not include the sponsor or publisher.
“Title.” Title of Site, Sponsor or Publisher, Day, Month, Year, URL.
“Turmeric.” National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, Sep. 2016, nccih.nih.gov/health/turmeric/ataglance.htm.
Webpage without dates
If the page doesn’t have any information about the date, or the site is updated frequently (e.g., a website that is a wiki), It is recommended to include an access date at the beginning of your citation to show when you were watching the page.
For more examples that require citations in MLA way, visit this library’s web-based MLA Citation Guide. The MLA Handbook (9th edition) is also within the knowledge center’s reference library and the Book Stacks. The Purdue Online Writing Lab also has comprehensive information on MLA writing style.
Using the Easy Bib MLA Citation Generator
Make sure you use the time for research and writing instead of trying to understand MLA’s rules, guidelines, and structures. The EasyBib Citation tool is available to assist you in creating references for your entire work to turn you into a citing MLA machine!
Take these steps:
- Find the source. There are more than 50 kinds of sources available to select from.
- You’ll get directed to two kinds of types of forms:
The automatic generator (shown below) generates references using online information. Just type in the key bits of information regarding the source and then click “Search.”
.Our manual form generates your references based on the data you input. Please fill out the form and select “Complete Reference.”
- The straightforward instructions provide you with the rest of the procedure. Follow the steps shown on the screen, and then witness the magic take place within a few clicks or keystrokes!
- Copy and paste your finished references into your work or export it to your file.
Citing Books in MLA Format
In making your work cited entry for books, it is important to add the author’s name (last initial, last) and the book’s title, along with the publisher’s name, title, and date. It is also possible to include the place of publication depending on the situation.
It could also differ depending on whether the same author or several authors wrote the book. A quick method to understand this is to:
- One Author: Last Name, First Name.
- Two Authors: Last Name, First Name, and First Name, Last Name.
- Three or more Authors: Initial Name and Last Name etc.
- It can be a little more complex for books such as the Bible with no author and anthologies. However, it is the fundamental format of the MLA book Work Cited entry.
MLA Website Citations
Like everything else, the trick is to use containers compatible with the source for proper citation on websites and other electronic media like digital video movies, films, etc. That means every type of work cited article is likely to be unique in its origin of citation.
Marble, Dee. “Jealousy in Shakespeare.” Shakespeare Online. 15 August 2020, shakespeare-online.com/quotes/shakespeareonjealousy.html.
MLA Format Periodical Citation
The books are one of a kind, But MLA periodical citations are an entirely different monster to control. “periodic” refers to something regularly published or multiple times throughout the year. It could be a newspaper, paper, magazine, or a quarterly journal. The periodicals are available in a variety of shapes and dimensions. They can also take the opening of an academic journal article to help you find a reliable source.
MLA is useful if you’re using a newspaper or magazine using the container system. The information you can use includes title source, author, contributors, container title numbers, versions of the publisher’s name, publication date, and page number. The information you provide likely depends on the information accessible.
Met Theresa. “Local Boy Charged With Possession.” Albuquerque Journal, 4 November 2020, A2.
MLA Citations for Shakespeare and Poems
It wouldn’t constitute the same as an MLA essay that didn’t include Shakespeare and poetry thematic citations! It’s good to know that creating authority in Shakespeare’s works is simple. It can be somewhat complicated, depending on the type of work you’re citing. In this case, if you are talking about Shakespeare, the playwright, you include his name at the top. However, if you don’t, then the work goes first.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. Written by Howard H. Furness, 6th ed. Vol. 9, Classic Books Company, 2001, Google Books.
PowerPoint Citations in MLA Style
You’d unlikely have to include many PowerPoint presentations within your work referenced. However, it is happening far more often than you think. When professors publish their lectures online, This is an ideal way of obtaining the best primary sources. Make sure you pay attention to the fundamental elements and the container method when you are using it in a PowerPoint presentation.
Ren, Tor. “Capitalism a Tool.” Philosophy 101. 12 August 2016. Fictional University. Lecture.
Other MLA Style Guide Citations
A few other MLA references you have to submit might fall into a different category. Do not be concerned that you’ll be unable to do it correctly. You’ve probably already learned that MLA can cite interviews and images flexibly. So long as you comply with the guidelines of the primary elements and containers, you’re safe and sound.
Free MLA Citations Through an MLA Citation Generator
With the basic elements system in place, the MLA Citations Generator can provide a simple and cost-free method to make MLA citations within minutes. Instead of attempting to do this yourself, entering your work into the generator is possible, and then the citation will be generated within minutes. You must copy and paste the code in your cited works, and then you’re completed. Simple.
Footnotes in MLA Format
The MLA style discourages the use of footnotes if feasible. But, there are times when it is necessary to include them in the text to give further detail—the two scenarios where the footnotes you use in MLA format are bibliographic citations and content notes. Content notes can be used for lengthy bibliographies that can clutter the text of your essay. The bibliographical sources help to simplify the authorities.
MLA Annotated Bibliography
This is rare. However, you may be required to prepare an annotated bibliography using MLA format. Before sweating over it, you have all the essentials in your bag. Alongside the standard citation, make a summary or an evaluative annotation of every source. This will give your teacher some additional information about the sources you have used.